C3a, C3b, C3c, and C3d were generated from purified guinea pig C3 by trypsin treatment. These fragments were characterized immunochemically and functionally by rosette inhibition. C3b is capable of binding to both C3b and C3d receptors on lymphocytes whereas C3d binds only to C3d receptors. C3b stimulates guinea pig spleen cells to elaborate a macrophage chemotactic factor which is similar in m.w. to that generated in response to PHA or LPS and is antigenically unrelated to C3 or C5. In contrast, neither C3a, C3c, or C3d stimulate guinea pig lymphocytes. Neither C3 nor any of its major fragments induce cellular proliferation. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that C3b triggers spleen cells to release a macrophage chemotactic factor by cross linking C3b and C3d receptors.