Aligned nanofibrous blends of poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and collagen with various PLGA/collagen compositions (80/20, 65/35 and 50/50) were fabricated by electrospinning and characterized for bone tissue engineering. Morphological characterization showed that the addition of collagen to PLGA resulted in narrowing of the diameter distribution and a reduction in average diameter. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) studies showed that the triple helix structure of the native collagen was not destroyed during the fabrication process. However, the blending had a marked effect on the overall enthalpy of the blends, whereby the total enthalpy decreased as the collagen content decreased. Thermogravimetric analysis showed the addition of collagen increased the hydrophilicity of the scaffolds. The crosslinking of collagen to increase the biostability was done using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) in ethanol and an overall ∼25% degree of crosslinking was achieved. The EDC crosslinking had little effect on the nanofibrous morphology of the 80/20 blend system; however, the nanofibrous features were compromised to some extent at higher collagen concentrations. The mechanical characterization under dry and wet conditions showed that increasing collagen content resulted in a tremendous decrease in the mechanical properties. However, crosslinking resulted in the increase in elastic modulus from 47 MPa to 83 MPa for the wet PLGA/Collagen 80/20 blend system, with little effect on the tensile strength. In conclusion, the aligned nanofibrous scaffold used in this study constitutes a promising material for bone tissue engineering. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.