Caloric restriction (CR) improves health span and life span of organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Understanding the mechanisms involved will uncover future interventions for aging-associated diseases. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CR is commonly defined by reduced glucose in the growth medium, which extends both replicative and chronological life span (CLS). We found that conditioned media collected from stationary-phase CR cultures extended CLS when supplemented into nonrestricted (NR) cultures, suggesting a potential cell-nonautonomous mechanism of CR-induced life span regulation. Chromatography and untargeted metabolomics of the conditioned media, as well as transcriptional responses associated with the longevity effect, pointed to specific amino acids enriched in the CR conditioned media (CRCM) as functional molecules, with L-serine being a particularly strong candidate. Indeed, supplementing L-serine into NR cultures extended CLS through a mechanism dependent on the one-carbon metabolism pathway, thus implicating this conserved and central metabolic hub in life span regulation.