THIS SPECIAL article is the 13th in an annual series for the Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. The authors thank the editor-in-chief, Dr Kaplan, and the editorial board for the opportunity to continue this series; namely, the research highlights of the past year in the specialty of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesiology.1 The major themes selected for 2020 are outlined in this introduction, and each highlight is reviewed in detail in the main body of the article. The literature highlights in the specialty for 2020 begin with an update on valvular disease, with a focus on updates in management of aortic and mitral valve disorders. The second major theme is an update on coronary artery disease, with discussion of both medical and surgical management. The third major theme is focused on the perioperative management of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with the authors highlighting literature discussing medical, surgical, and anesthetic considerations for their cardiac care. The fourth major theme is an update in heart failure, with discussion of medical, psychosocial, and procedural aspects of this complicated disease process. The fifth and final theme focuses on the latest analyses regarding survival in heart transplantation. The themes selected for this 13th special article are only a few of the diverse advances in the specialty during 2020. These highlights will inform the reader of key updates on a variety of topics, leading to improvement of perioperative outcomes for patients with cardiothoracic and vascular disease.