The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the urgent need for effective preventive vaccination to reduce burden and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in humans. Intranasal vaccination is an attractive strategy to prevent COVID-19 as the nasal mucosa represents the first-line barrier to SARS-CoV-2 entry before viral spread to the lung. Although SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development is rapidly progressing, the current intramuscular vaccines are designed to elicit systemic immunity without conferring mucosal immunity. Here, we show that AdCOVID, an intranasal adenovirus type 5 (Ad5)-vectored vaccine encoding the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, elicits a strong and focused immune response against RBD through the induction of mucosal IgA, serum neutralizing antibodies and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with a Th1-like cytokine expression profile. Therefore, AdCOVID, which promotes concomitant systemic and local mucosal immunity, represents a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate.