Enteric hyperoxaluria is a distinct entity that can occur as a result of a diverse set of gastrointestinal disorders that promote fat malabsorption. This, in turn, leads to excess absorption of dietary oxalate and increased urinary oxalate excretion. Hyperoxaluria increases the risk of kidney stones and, in more severe cases, CKD and even kidney failure. The prevalence of enteric hyperoxaluria has increased over recent decades, largely because of the increased use of malabsorptive bariatric surgical procedures for medically complicated obesity. This systematic review of enteric hyperoxaluria was completed as part of a Kidney Health Initiative–sponsored project to describe enteric hyperoxaluria pathophysiology, causes, outcomes, and therapies. Current therapeutic options are limited to correcting the underlying gastrointestinal disorder, intensive dietary modifications, and use of calcium salts to bind oxalate in the gut. Evidence for the effect of these treatments on clinically significant outcomes, including kidney stone events or CKD, is currently lacking. Thus, further research is needed to better define the precise factors that influence risk of adverse outcomes, the long-term efficacy of available treatment strategies, and to develop new therapeutic approaches.