Very little is known about how metabolic health status, insulin resistance or metabolic challenges modulate the endocannabinoid (eCB) or polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-derived oxylipin (OxL) lipid classes. To address these questions, plasma eCB and OxL concentrations were determined at rest, 10 and 20 min during an acute exercise bout (30 min total, ~45% of preintervention V̇O2peak, ~63 W), and following 20 min recovery in overnight-fasted sedentary, obese, insulin-resistant women under controlled diet conditions. We hypothesized that increased fitness and insulin sensitivity following a ~14-week training and weight loss intervention would lead to significant changes in lipid signatures using an identical acute exercise protocol to preintervention. In the first 10 min of exercise, concentrations of a suite of OxL diols and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) metabolites dropped significantly. There was no increase in 12,13-DiHOME, previously reported to increase with exercise and proposed to activate muscle fatty acid uptake and tissue metabolism. Following weight loss intervention, exercise-associated reductions were more pronounced for several linoleate and alpha-linolenate metabolites including DiHOMEs, DiHODEs, KODEs, and EpODEs, and fasting concentrations of 9,10-DiHODE, 12,13-DiHODE, and 9,10-DiHOME were reduced. These findings suggest that improved metabolic health modifies soluble epoxide hydrolase, cytochrome P450 epoxygenase (CYP), and lipoxygenase (LOX) systems. Acute exercise led to reductions for most eCB metabolites, with no evidence for concentration increases even at recovery. It is proposed that during submaximal aerobic exercise, nonoxidative fates of long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and PUFAs are attenuated in tissues that are important contributors to the blood OxL and eCB pools.