Vaccine developmental strategies are utilizing antigens encapsulated in biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. Here, we developed a Chlamydia nanovaccine (PLGA-rMOMP) by encapsulating its recombinant major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) in the extended-releasing and self-adjuvanting PLGA [poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (85:15)] nanoparticles. PLGA-rMOMP was small (nanometer size), round and smooth, thermally stable, and exhibited a sustained release of rMOMP. Stimulation of mouse primary dendritic cells (DCs) with PLGA-rMOMP augmented endosome processing, induced Th1 cytokines (IL-6 and IL-12p40), and expression of MHC-II and co-stimulatory (CD40, CD80, and CD86) molecules. BALB/c mice immunized with PLGA-rMOMP produced enhanced CD4+ T-cells-derived memory (CD44high CD62Lhigh), and effector (CD44high CD62Llow) phenotypes and functional antigen-specific serum IgG antibodies. In vivo biodistribution of PLGA-rMOMP revealed its localization within lymph nodes, suggesting migration from the injection site via DCs. Our data provide evidence that the PLGA (85:15) nanovaccine activates DCs and augments Chlamydia-specific rMOMP adaptive immune responses that are worthy of efficacy testing.