Inflammatory cell infiltration contributes to the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Protectin DX (PDX), an endogenous lipid mediator, shows anti-inflammatory and proresolution bioactions. In vivo, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with PDX (0.1 µg/mouse) after intratracheal (1 mg/kg) or intraperitoneal (10 mg/kg) LPS administration. Flow cytometry was used to measure inflammatory cell numbers. Clodronate liposomes were used to deplete resident macrophages. RT-PCR, and ELISA was used to measure MIP-2, MCP-1, TNF-α and MMP9 levels. In vitro, sorted neutrophils, resident and recruited macrophages (1 × 106) were cultured with 1 μg/mL LPS and/or 100 nmol/L PDX to assess the chemokine receptor expression. PDX attenuated LPS-induced lung injury via inhibiting recruited macrophage and neutrophil recruitment through repressing resident macrophage MCP-1, MIP-2 expression and release, respectively. Finally, PDX inhibition of neutrophil infiltration and transmembrane was associated with TNF-α/MIP-2/MMP9 signalling pathway. These data suggest that PDX attenuates LPS-stimulated lung injury via reduction of the inflammatory cell recruitment mediated via resident macrophages.