Accelerated Development of Rod Photoreceptors in Retinal Organoids Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells by Supplementation with 9-cis Retinal

Academic Article


  • Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) can be differentiated into retinal organoids with proper neural layer organization, yet the protocols are technically challenging and time consuming. We have modified a widely used differentiation protocol by switching all-trans retinoic acid with 9-cis retinal to accelerate photoreceptor differentiation and improve morphogenesis. In this report, we provide a detailed and improved protocol to generate retinal organoids from human pluripotent stem cells. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Kaya et al. (2019).
  • Authors

    Published In

  • STAR Protocols  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Kelley RA; Chen HY; Swaroop A; Li T
  • Volume

  • 1
  • Issue

  • 1