Facial morphology of slovenian and welsh white populations using 3-dimensional imaging

Academic Article


  • Objective: To use 3-dimensional (3D) facial averages to test the hypothesis that the facial morphologies of 2 European white groups (Slovenia and Wales) have no differences. Methods: Fifty males and 50 females from Wales and 43 males and 44 females from Slovenia were included in the study. Subjects ranged from 18 to 30 years of age. Four subgroups were formed: Slovenian males (SM), Slovenian females (SF), Welsh males (WM), and Welsh females (WF). 3D data were acquired using a laser scanning system. An average face for each subgroup was obtained using a previously validated mathematical algorithm. Facial differences were quantified after average faces had been superimposed using a previously validated method. Results: A total of 187 subjects from Slovenia and Wales formed 4 gender-specific subgroups. Absolute differences between subgroups ranged from 0.36 mm to 1.51 mm. The mean linear facial difference between SF and WF was 0.64 ± 0.51 mm, and between SM and WM was 0.36 ± 0.41 mm. Similarities between subgroups ranged from 13.43% (SF, WF) to 70.23% (SM, WM). Slovenian males and females tend to express Class III facial morphology when compared with the Welsh gender-specific subgroups. Male faces, in general, have more pronounced nasal, brow, and frontal regions and mandibles when compared with females. Female faces have more prominent malar and periocular areas. Conclusion: The hypothesis is rejected. Morphologic differences exist between Slovenian and Welsh faces. © 2009 by The EH Angle Education and Research Foundation, Inc.
  • Authors

    Published In

  • Angle Orthodontist  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Božič M; Kau CH; Richmond S; Ihan Hren N; Zhurov A; Udovic M; Melinkg S; Ovsenik M
  • Start Page

  • 640
  • End Page

  • 645
  • Volume

  • 79
  • Issue

  • 4