Background - Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a condition that affects the femoral head and the acetabulum and leads to hip subluxation and dislocation. Infants with DDH are usually treated using splints that immobilize their hip joint and are forced on their back for long periods of time. The link between positioning and facial asymmetries is poorly understood. Objective - To compare the facial morphologies of children with DDH to a group of healthy controls. Subjects and methods - Fifty-six Finnish patients born with DDH were matched on the basis of gender and age to a control group. Three-dimensional surface images were captured using the 3dMDface system. Using RF6 PP2 software, anthropometric landmarks were plotted and used to calculate asymmetry based on 3D co-ordinates in a reference framework. Results - There was statistically significant difference between all paired facial shells. Relative to the control group, DDH boys and girls presented a chin-point deviation to the right, a more prominent left orbital ridge, a more protrusive nose and upper lip. The gender-specific subgroups show a similarity of 66.54 and 65.22% in girls and boys, respectively. Conclusions - Patients with DDH present a facial asymmetry when compared to healthy controls. Gender characteristics are marked whether subjects are affected with DDH or not. Three-dimensional surface imaging is a powerful diagnostic and research tool. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.