Introduction: The purpose of this research was to determine the accuracy of digital models generated by cone-beam computed tomography and compare it with that of OrthoCAD models (Cadent, Carlstadt, NJ) for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning by using surface area analysis. Materials: Two sets of maxillary and mandibular digital models of 30 subjects were obtained. The models were made from impressions scanned with OrthoCAD and by conversion of related cone-beam computed tomography files. Each patient's matched pairs of maxillary and mandibular models were superimposed by using a software program and a best-fit algorithm; surface-to-surface analysis was then performed. The average linear differences between the 2 files at all points on the surfaces were measured, and tolerance levels of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 mm were set to determine the surface correlation amounts between the 2 files. Additionally, 6 linear measurements from predetermined landmarks were also measured and analyzed. Results: The average maxillary model linear difference was 0.28 to 0.60 mm, whereas the average mandibular model linear difference ranged between 0.34 and 0.61 mm. Greater than a 90% surface correlation was obtained on average at 1.00 mm in the maxillary models and at 1.25 mm in the mandibular models. The mean differences obtained from the linear measurements of the maxillary and mandibular models were 0.071 and 0.018 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Surface-to-surface analysis of OrthoCAD and digital models generated by cone-beam computed tomography pointed to a fair overlap between the protocols. The accuracy of digital models generated by cone-beam computed tomography is adequate for initial diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics. © 2012 by the American Association of Orthodontists.