Purpose : The aim of this study was to investigate the initial effects of maxillary expansion therapy with Hyrax appliance and to evaluate the related changes in maxillary sinus volume. Materials and Methods : Thirty patients (20 females, 10 males; 13.8 years) requiring maxillary expansion therapy, as part of their comprehensive orthodontic treatment, were examined. Each patient had cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before (T1) and after (T2) maxillary expansion therapy with a banded Hyrax appliance. Multiplanar slices were used to measure linear dimensions and palatal vault angle. Volumetric analysis was used to measure maxillary sinus volumes. Student t tests were used to compare the pre- and post-treatment measurements. Additionally, differences between two age groups were compared with Mann-Whitney U test. The level of significance was set at p=0.05. Results : Comparison of pre-treatment to post-treatment variables revealed significant changes in the transverse dimension related to both maxillary skeletal and dental structures and palatal vault angle, resulting in a widened palatal vault (p<0.05). Hard palate showed no significant movement in the vertical and anteroposterior planes. Nasal cavity width increased on a mean value of 0.93mm(SD=0.23, p<0.05). Maxillary sinus volume remained virtually stable. No significant age differences were observed in the sample. Conclusion : Hyrax expansion therapy did not have a significant impact on maxillary sinus volume. © 2012 by Korean Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology.