Concurrent diabetic ketoacidosis with hyperosmolality and/or severe hyperglycemia in youth with type 2 diabetes

Academic Article


  • Introduction: Prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) complicated by severe hyperglycaemia and hyperosmolality and its outcomes in youth with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are not well-described. Our aim is to determine the frequency and clinical outcomes of isolated DKA, DKA with severe hyperglycaemia (DKA + SHG) and DKA with hyperglycaemia and hyperosmolality (DKA + HH) in youth with T2DM admitted for acute hyperglycaemic crisis. Methods: Through retrospective medical record review, patients with T2DM were identified and categorized into isolated DKA, DKA + SHG (DKA + glucose ≥33.3 mmol/L) and DKA + HH (DKA + glucose ≥33.3 mmol/L + osmolality ≥320 mmol/kg). Results: Forty-eight admissions in 43 patients ages 9-18 were included: 28 (58%) had isolated DKA, six (13%) had DKA + SHG and 14 (29%) had DKA + HH. Subgroups’ demographics and medical history were similar. Seventeen patients (35%) had acute kidney injury (AKI). Odds of AKI were higher in DKA + SHG and DKA + HH relative to isolated DKA (P =.015 and.002 respectively). Frequency of altered mental status (AMS) was similar among groups. Three patients (6%) had concurrent soft-tissue infections at presentation with no differences among subgroup. Three patients (6%) had other medical complications. These occurred only in patients with AKI and DKA + SHG or AKI and DKA + HH. Conclusions: In youth with T2DM, severe hyperglycaemia ± hyperosmolality frequently complicates DKA. Youth with DKA and features of hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar syndrome, including isolated severe hyperglycaemia, have increased odds of AKI.
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    Author List

  • Schmitt J; Rahman AF; Ashraf A
  • Volume

  • 3
  • Issue

  • 3