© 2020, American Aging Association. To (1) investigate the efficacy of multiple doses of an orally delivered probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei (LP) modified to express angiotensin (1–7) (LP-A) in altering physiologic parameters relevant to the gut-brain axis in older rats and to (2) compare this strategy with subcutaneous delivery of synthetic Ang(1–7) peptide on circulating Ang(1–7) concentrations and these gut-brain axis parameters. Male 24-month-old F344BN rats received oral gavage of LP-A, or subcutaneous injection of Ang(1–7) for 0×, 1×, 3×, or 7×/week over 4 weeks. Circulating RAS analytes, inflammatory cytokines, and tryptophan and its downstream metabolites were measured by ELISA, electrochemiluminescence, and LC-MS respectively. Microbiome taxonomic analysis of fecal samples was performed via 16S-based PCR. Inflammatory and tryptophan-related mRNA expression was measured in colon and pre-frontal cortex. All dosing regimens of LP-A induced beneficial changes in fecal microbiome including overall microbiota community structure and α-diversity, while the 3×/week also significantly increased expression of the anti-inflammatory species Akkermansia muciniphila. The 3×/week also increased serum serotonin and the neuroprotective analyte 2-picolinic acid. In the colon, LP-A increased quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase expression (1×/week) and increased kynurenine aminotransferase II (1× and 3×/week) mRNA expression. LP-A also significantly reduced neuro-inflammatory gene expression in the pre-frontal cortex (3×/week: COX2, IL-1β, and TNFα; 7×/week: COX2 and IL-1β). Subcutaneous delivery of Ang(1–7) increased circulating Ang(1–7) and reduced angiotensin II, but most gut-brain parameters were unchanged in response. Oral—but not subcutaneous—Ang(1–7) altered physiologic parameters related to gut-brain axis, with the most effects observed in 3×/week oral dosing regimen in older rats.