Background Astodrimer Gel contains a novel dendrimer intended to treat and prevent bacterial vaginosis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of Astodrimer Gel for treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Methods 132 women with bacterial vaginosis were randomized 1:1:1:1 to Astodrimer 0.5% (N = 34), 1% (N = 33), or 3% (N = 32) Gel or hydroxyethyl cellulose placebo gel (N = 33) at a dose of 5 g vaginally once daily for 7 days at 6 centers in the United States. The primary endpoint was clinical cure (no bacterial vaginosis vaginal discharge and no more than one of 1) vaginal pH ≥4.5; 2) ≥20% clue cells; or 3) positive whiff test) at study days 21–30. Secondary analyses included clinical cure at study days 9–12, patient-reported symptoms, acceptability and adverse events. Results The Astodrimer 1% Gel dose was superior to placebo for the primary and selected secondary efficacy measures in the modified intent-to-treat population. Clinical cure rates at day 9–12 were superior to placebo for the Astodrimer 3%, 1% and 0.5% Gel groups (62.5% [15/ 24; P = .002], 74.1% [20/27; P < .001], and 55.2% [16/29; P = .001], respectively, vs. 22.2% [6/27]). At day 21–30, clinical cure rates were 46.2% (12/26) for the 1% dose vs. 11.5% for placebo (3/26; P = .006). A greater proportion of patients reported absence of vaginal discharge and vaginal odor at day 9–12 and day 21–30 for Astodrimer Gel groups compared with placebo. Adverse events considered potentially treatment-related occurred in only 25% of Astodrimer Gel-treated patients vs. 22% of placebo patients. Conclusion Astodrimer Gel once daily for 7 days was superior to placebo for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and was well-tolerated. The 1% dose consistently showed the strongest efficacy across endpoints. These results support a role for Astodrimer Gel, 1%, as an effective treatment for bacterial vaginosis.