The t(8;21)(q22;q22) is common in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The RUNX1-ETO fusion protein that is expressed by this translocation is poorly leukemogenic and requires additional mutations for transformation. Loss of sex chromosome (LOS) is frequently observed in t(8;21) AML. In the present study, to evaluate whether LOS cooperates with t(8;21) in leukemogenesis, we first used a retroviral transduction/transplantation model to express RUNX1-ETO in hematopoietic cells from XO mice. The low frequency of leukemia in these mice suggests that the potentially critical gene for suppression of t(8;21) leukemia in humans is not conserved on mouse sex chromosomes. The gene encoding the GM-CSF receptor α subunit (CSF2RA) is located on X and Y chromosomes in humans but on chromosome 19 in mice. GM-CSF promotes myeloid cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. To determine whether GM-CSF signaling affects RUNX1-ETO leukemogenesis, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that lack GM-CSF signaling were used to express RUNX1-ETO and transplanted into lethally irradiated mice, and a high penetrance of AML was observed in recipients. Furthermore, GM-CSF reduced the replating ability of RUNX1-ETO–expressing cells. These results suggest a possible tumor-suppressor role of GM-CSF in RUNX1-ETO leukemia. Loss of the CSF2RA gene may be a critical mutation explaining the high incidence of LOS associated with the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation.