Background - Normalization of diastolic properties after left ventricular (LV) assist may result from a change in myocardial material properties, chamber size, or both. This study tested the hypothesis that reported normalization of LV diastolic properties is primarily due to remodeling of chamber geometry. Methods and Results - Hearts were obtained at transplantation from 8 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 6 patients with DCM plus 33±5 days of LV assist, and 3 patients with no evidence of heart failure. LV assist normalized passive pressure-volume curves. Chamber dimensions decreased without a change in the ratio of radius to wall thickness. Midwall stress-stretch relations predicted from pressure-volume and dimension data were not different for DCM and LV assist hearts. Passive stress-stretch relations were measured in endocardial trabeculae and were not different for DCM and LV assist hearts. Myocyte size and collagen area fraction were unchanged at this brief duration of support. Conclusions - These findings are all consistent with the hypothesis that early normalization of diastolic properties after LV assist device support results from remodeling of chamber geometry, not from changes in tissue stiffness. These data emphasize the importance of geometry to ventricular mechanics and demonstrate that reduction of heart size does not necessarily produce a reduction in wall stress.