Impact of mechanical activation, scar, and electrical timing on cardiac resynchronization therapy response and clinical outcomes

Academic Article


  • Objectives Using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), we sought to evaluate the relative influences of mechanical, electrical, and scar properties at the left ventricular lead position (LVLP) on cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response and clinical events. Background CMR cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) provides high-quality strain for overall dyssynchrony (circumferential uniformity ratio estimate [CURE] 0 to 1) and timing of onset of circumferential contraction at the LVLP. CMR DENSE, late gadolinium enhancement, and electrical timing together could improve upon other imaging modalities for evaluating the optimal LVLP. Methods Patients had complete CMR studies and echocardiography before CRT. CRT response was defined as a 15% reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume. Electrical activation was assessed as the time from QRS onset to LVLP electrogram (QLV). Patients were then followed for clinical events. Results In 75 patients, multivariable logistic modeling accurately identified the 40 patients (53%) with CRT response (area under the curve: 0.95 [p < 0.0001]) based on CURE (odds ratio [OR]: 2.59/0.1 decrease), delayed circumferential contraction onset at LVLP (OR: 6.55), absent LVLP scar (OR: 14.9), and QLV (OR: 1.31/10 ms increase). The 33% of patients with CURE <0.70, absence of LVLP scar, and delayed LVLP contraction onset had a 100% response rate, whereas those with CURE ≥0.70 had a 0% CRT response rate and a 12-fold increased risk of death; the remaining patients had a mixed response profile. Conclusions Mechanical, electrical, and scar properties at the LVLP together with CMR mechanical dyssynchrony are strongly associated with echocardiographic CRT response and clinical events after CRT. Modeling these findings holds promise for improving CRT outcomes. © 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 16802362
  • Author List

  • Bilchick KC; Kuruvilla S; Hamirani YS; Ramachandran R; Clarke SA; Parker KM; Stukenborg GJ; Mason P; Ferguson JD; Moorman JR
  • Start Page

  • 1657
  • End Page

  • 1666
  • Volume

  • 63
  • Issue

  • 16