Long-acting antiretroviral therapy holds the promise of new options for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment beyond the current paradigm of daily oral pills. Of particular interest is their potential role in addressing challenges with adherence to oral therapy and treatment fatigue. Similar to other conditions where long-acting formulations have proven effective such as contraception and mental health, long-acting antiretroviral therapy could provide additional treatment choices to people with HIV. This review provides an outline of the current landscape of long-acting antiretroviral therapy for HIV treatment, both approved and under development, including cabotegravir, rilpivirine, leronlimab, islatravir, albuvirtide, GS-6207, and broadly neutralizaing antibodies. However, there are a number of research gaps for long-acting antiretroviral therapy including issues regarding resistance and understudied populations, and this review highlights some of the challenges that will need to be addressed for clinical implementation of these novel treatment modalities.