Fibrosis is a stereotypic, multicellular tissue response to diverse types of injuries that fundamentally result from a failure of cell/tissue regeneration. This complex tissue remodeling response disrupts cellular/matrix composition and homeostatic cell-cell interactions, leading to loss of normal tissue architecture and progressive loss of organ structure/function. Fibrosis is a common feature of chronic diseases that may affect the lung, kidney, liver, and heart.
There is emerging evidence to support a combination of genetic, environmental, and age-related risk factors contributing to susceptibility and/or progression of fibrosis in different organ systems. A core pathway in fibrogenesis involving these organs is the induction and activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) family enzymes.
We explore current pharmaceutical approaches to targeting NOX enzymes, including repurposing of currently U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. Specific inhibitors of various NOX homologs will aid establishing roles of NOXs in the various organ fibroses and potential efficacy to impede/halt disease progression.
The discovery of novel and highly specific NOX inhibitors will provide opportunities to develop NOX inhibitors for treatment of fibrotic pathologies.