Patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI) are at particularly high risk for recurrent adverse outcomes. The magnitude of the decrease in risk associated with smoking cessation after MI has not been well described in patients with LV dysfunction after MI. We aimed to quantify the risk decrease associated with smoking cessation in subjects with LV dysfunction after MI. The Survival and Ventricular Enlargement (SAVE) trial randomized 2,231 subjects with LV dysfunction 3 to 16 days after MI. Smoking status was assessed at randomization and at regular intervals during a median follow-up of 42 months. Propensity score-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to quantify the decrease in risk of all-cause mortality, death or recurrent MI, and death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization associated with smoking cessation. In baseline smokers who survived to 6 months without interval events, smoking cessation at 6-month follow-up was associated with a significantly lower adjusted risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31 to 0.91), death or recurrent MI (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.99), and death or HF hospitalization (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.92). In conclusion, in patients with LV dysfunction after MI, smoking cessation is associated with a 40% lower hazard of all-cause mortality and a 30% lower hazard of death or recurrent MI or death or HF hospitalization. These findings indicate that smoking cessation is beneficial after high-risk MI and highlight the importance of smoking cessation as a therapeutic target in patients with LV dysfunction after MI. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.