OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between the change of coagulation and the clinicopathologic characteristics in patients with gallbladder cancer.METHODS: The 64 gallbladder cancer patients (GBC group) and 60 cholecystitis patients (control group) had been reviewed from January 2007 to June 2013. The prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fib), and thrombin time (TT) had been measured and compared between patients of GBC group and control group. The relationship of coagulation function and prognosis were analyzed.RESULTS: Compared with control group, APTT in GBC group ((29.0 ± 4.2) s) was significantly shortened (t = -4.265, P = 0.000) and PT ((11.5 ± 1.4) s), TT ((15.3 ± 3.5) s), Fib ((4.1 ± 0.9) g/L) were significantly increased in GBC group (t = 2.521, 4.147 and 4.365, all P < 0.05). The level of Fib was higher in patients with medium or poor-differentiated tumor cells (F = 4.069, P = 0.022), lymph metastasis (t = 2.640, P = 0.010) and advanced staging (II-IV) (t = 3.003, P < 0.01) than those of well-differentiated, non-lymph metastasis and early staging (0-I). The ratio of gallbladder cancer with hyperfibrinogenemia (32/64) was significantly higher than control group (11/60, χ(2) = 13.709, P < 0.01). In GBC group, compared with normal Fib patients, hyperfibrinogenemia patients showed significantly difference in clinicopathologic characteristics (χ(2) = 5.851-10.573, P < 0.05). The average survival period of hyperfibrinogenemia patients and normal Fib patients were 8.63 months and 16.73 months. The 1-, 3-year survival rate of patients with hyperfibrinogenemia were significantly lower than those with normal Fib (64.7%, 14.9% vs. 74.9%, 21.1%, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Preoperative plasma level of Fib might be a new promising biomarker in patients with gallbladder cancer for evaluating disease progression and prognosis.