© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Environmental cues have long been correlated to reproductive events in echinoids. However, how those cues are transduced to chemical messengers within the echinoid gonads and gut to regulate gametogenesis and nutrient storage throughout the annual reproductive cycle remains unknown. In vertebrates, regulation of reproduction and gametogenesis involves complex pathways that include steroids, proteins, and peptides. Such chemical messengers may play roles in echinoid reproduction and gametogenesis. We have summarized the current knowledge of these putative chemical messengers in echinoids, and their potential roles in regulating reproduction. Since vertebrate endocrine pathways can be influenced by synthetic chemicals that interact antagonistically or agonistically with cell receptors, we have also described the morphologic and biochemical effects of some endocrine disruptors on echinoid reproduction and gametogenesis.