© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018. The history of aeromedical evacuation parallels that of manned flight. The first fixed wing aeromedical evacuations occurred on limited basis during the First World War with a significantly increased experience occurring during the Second World War. The Korean War introduced the role of rotary-wing transport in decreasing transport time from the forward area of battle to medical care units. Vietnam expanded on this rotary-wing evacuation experience and introduced a limited set of medical interventions for the casualty during the transport process. The experience of aeromedical evacuation in the military during Vietnam was largely responsible for the subsequent proliferation of civilian aeromedical evacuation services in the trauma system of the United States during the latter part of the twentieth century.