Prior studies reported that haploinsufficiency of the transcription factor ETS-1 is renoprotective in Dahl salt-sensitive rats, but the mechanism is unclear. Here, we tested whether ETS-1 is involved in hypertension-induced renal microvascular pathology and autoregulatory impairment. Hypertension was induced in salt-sensitive rats and salt-sensitive rats that are heterozygous with 1 wild-type or reference allele of Ets1 (SSEts1+/-) by feeding a diet containing 4% sodium chloride for 1 week. Increases in blood pressure did not differ. However, phosphorylated ETS-1 increased in afferent arterioles of hypertensive salt-sensitive rats, but not in hypertensive SSEts1+/- rats. Afferent arterioles of hypertensive salt-sensitive rats showed increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression and infiltration of CD68 positive monocytes/macrophages. Isolated kidney microvessels showed increased mRNA expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule, intercellular adhesion molecule, P-selectin, fibronectin, transforming growth factor-β, and collagen I in hypertensive salt-sensitive rats compared with hypertensive SSEts1+/- rats. Using the in vitro blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation, pressure-mediated afferent arteriolar responses were significantly blunted in hypertensive salt-sensitive rats compared to hypertensive SSEts1+/- rats. Over a 65-170 mm Hg pressure range tested baseline arteriolar diameters averaged 15.1 μm and remained between 107% and 89% of baseline diameter in hypertensive salt-sensitive rats vs. 114% and 73% in hypertensive SSEts1+/- rats (significantly different). Thus, ETS-1 participates in renal arteriolar pathology and autoregulation and thereby is involved in hypertension-mediated kidney injury in salt-sensitive rats.