Innate and adaptive immune responses in Parkinson's disease

Chapter

Abstract

  • © 2019 Elsevier B.V. Parkinson's disease (PD) has classically been defined as a movement disorder, in which motor symptoms are explained by the aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) and subsequent death of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). More recently, the multisystem effects of the disease have been investigated, with the immune system being implicated in a number of these processes in the brain, the blood, and the gut. In this review, we highlight the dysfunctional immune system found in both human PD and animal models of the disease, and discuss how genetic risk factors and risk modifiers are associated with pro-inflammatory immune responses. Finally, we emphasize evidence that the immune response drives the pathogenesis and progression of PD, and discuss key questions that remain to be investigated in order to identify immunomodulatory therapies in PD.
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