The packaging of molecular constituents inside extracellular vesicles (EVs) allows them to participate in intercellular communication and the transfer of biological molecules, however the role of EVs during bacterial infection is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection on the biogenesis and composition of EVs derived from the mouse microglia cell line, BV-2. BV-2 cells were cultured in exosome-free media and infected with 0, 1.3 × 104, or 2.6 × 104 colony forming units per milliliter P. aeruginosa for 72 h. The results indicated that compared with the control group, BV-2 cell viability significantly decreased after P. aeruginosa infection and BV-2-derived EVs concentration decreased significantly in the P. aeruginosa-infected group. P. aeruginosa infection significantly decreased chemokine ligand 4 messenger RNA in BV-2-derived infected EVs, compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05). This study also revealed that heat shock protein 70 (p ≤ 0.05) and heat shock protein 90β (p ≤ 0.001) levels of expression within EVs increased after P. aeruginosa infection. EV treatment with EVs derived from P. aeruginosa infection reduced cell viability of BV-2 cells. P. aeruginosa infection alters the expression of specific proteins and mRNA in EVs. Our study suggests that P. aeruginosa infection modulates EV biogenesis and composition, which may influence bacterial pathogenesis and infection.