© 2019 The Author(s) The immunometabolic mechanisms underlying suboptimal T cell immunity in tuberculosis remain undefined. Here, we examine how chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and M. bovis BCG infections rewire metabolic circuits and alter effector functions in lung CD8+ T cells. As Mtb infection progresses, mitochondrial metabolism deteriorates in CD8+ T cells, resulting in an increased dependency on glycolysis that potentiates inflammatory cytokine production. Over time, these cells develop bioenergetic deficiencies that reflect metabolic “quiescence.” This bioenergetic signature coincides with increased mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibitory receptor expression and was not observed in BCG infection. Remarkably, the Mtb-triggered decline in T cell bioenergetics can be reinvigorated by metformin, giving rise to an Mtb-specific CD8+ T cell population with improved metabolism. These findings provide insights into Mtb pathogenesis whereby glycolytic reprogramming and compromised mitochondrial function contribute to the breakdown of CD8+ T cell immunity during chronic disease, highlighting opportunities to reinvigorate immunity with metabolically targeted pharmacologic agents.