© The Author(s) 2019. Declining cognitive functions in older individuals have enormous emotional, clinical, and public health consequences. Thus, therapeutics for preserving function and keeping older adults living independently are imperative. Aging is associated dysbiosis, defined as a loss of number and diversity in gut microbiota, which has been linked with various aspects of cognitive functions. Therefore, the gut microbiome has the potential to be an important therapeutic target for symptoms of cognitive impairment. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the potential for gut-targeted therapeutic strategies for prevention/treatment of the symptoms of cognitive impairment. Specifically, we discuss four primary therapeutic strategies: wild-type and genetically modified probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, physical exercise, and high-fiber diets and specifically link these therapies to reducing inflammation. These strategies may hold promise as treatment paradigm symptoms related to cognitive impairment.