Context: In some patients, PCOS may develop as a consequence of an exaggerated adrenarche during pubertal development. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess adrenal function during childhood and pubertal development in daughters of women with PCOS (PCOSd). Design: We included 98 PCOSd [64 during childhood (ages 4-8 yr) and 34 during the peripubertal period (ages 9-13 yr)] and 51 daughters of controlwomen(Cd) [30 during childhood and 21 during the peripubertal period]. In both groups, an acute ACTH-(1-24) stimulation test (0.25 mg) and an oral glucose tolerance test were performed. Bone age and serum concentrations of cortisol, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), glucose, and insulin were determined. Results: PCOSd and Cd were similar in age and body mass index. During the peripubertal period, basal and poststimulated DHEAS concentrations were higher in PCOSd compared to Cd. Among PCOSd, 12.5% of girls in childhood and 32.4% in peripuberty presented biochemical evidence of exaggerated adrenarche. Stimulated insulin was higher in PCOSd compared to Cd during childhood (P = 0.03) and peripuberty (P = 0.03). An advancement of 8 months between bone and chronological age was observed in peripubertal PCOSd compared to Cd. Conclusions: In PCOSd, basal and stimulated DHEAS concentrations were higher during the onset of puberty. Around 30% of the PCOSd demonstrated an exacerbated adrenarche, which may reflect increased P450c17 activity. In addition, a modest advance in bone age was observed, probably secondary to the hyperinsulinemia and/or adrenal hyperandrogenism. Copyright © 2009 by The Endocrine Society.