A novel in situ multiplex immunofluorescence panel for the assessment of tumor immunopathology and response to virotherapy in pediatric glioblastoma reveals a role for checkpoint protein inhibition

Academic Article


  • Immunotherapy with oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 therapy offers an innovative, targeted, less-toxic approach for treating brain tumors. However, a major obstacle in maximizing oncolytic virotherapy is a lack of comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms that unfold in CNS tumors/associated microenvironments after infusion of virus. We demonstrate that our multiplex biomarker screening platform comprehensively informs changes in both topographical location and functional states of resident/infiltrating immune cells that play a role in neuropathology after treatment with HSV G207 in a pediatric Phase 1 patient. Using this approach, we identified robust infiltration of CD8+ T cells suggesting activation of the immune response following virotherapy; however there was a corresponding upregulation of checkpoint proteins PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4, and IDO revealing a potential role for checkpoint inhibitors. Such work may ultimately lead to an understanding of the governing pathobiology of tumors, thereby fostering development of novel therapeutics tailored to produce optimal responses.
  • Published In

  • OncoImmunology  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Bernstock JD; Vicario N; Rong L; Valdes PA; Choi BD; Chen JA; DiToro D; Osorio DS; Kachurak K; Gessler F
  • Volume

  • 8
  • Issue

  • 12