This chapter introduces the volume as a whole. It begins by briefly explaining inference to the best explanation and giving examples of explanatory reasoning from the sciences and everyday life. The chapter notes that inference to the best explanation is taken to be central to a variety of endeavors from diagnosing medical conditions to increasing crop yields. Nevertheless, the chapter makes it clear that there are a number of conflicts related to inference to the best explanation and its proper use. These conflicts are the focus of the volume. After this introduction to the volume, the chapter provides brief summaries of the chapters that follow.