Sufiredoxin (Srx) is a sulfinic acid reductase, a recently identified eukaryotic enzyme, which is involved in the reduction of the hyperoxidized sulfinic acid form of the catalytic cysteine of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prx). This reaction contributes to the oxidative stress response and H2O 2 mediated signaling. We show that Srx has significant sequence and structural similarity to a functionally unrelated protein, ParB, a DNA-binding protein with a helix-turn-helix (HTH) domain which is involved in chromosome partitioning in bacteria. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the Srx and ParB protein families suggest that Srx evolved via truncation of ParB, which removed the entire C-terminal half of the protein, including the HTH domain, and a substitution of cysteine for a glutamic acid in a highly conserved structural motif of ParB. The latter substitution apparently created the sulfinic acid reductase catalytic site. Evolution of a redox enzyme from a DNA-binding protein, with retention of highly significant sequence similarity, is unusual, even when compared to functional switches accompanying recruitment of other prokaryotic proteins for new functions in eukaryotes. ©2005 Landes Bioscience.