© 2019 International Society of Nephrology Introduction: Patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) have elevated serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) that are bound by Gd-IgA1–specific autoantibodies in pathogenic immune complexes. Renal biopsy histopathologic features of IgA vasculitis (IgAV) with nephritis (IgAV-N) are similar to those of IgAN. Mucosal infections often are associated with clinical onset and exacerbation in both diseases. We investigated whether patients with IgAV-N share pathogenic characteristics of IgAN. Methods: We generated IgA1- and IgG-secreting cell lines from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–immortalized cells of patients with IgAV without nephritis (IgAV-woN), IgAV-N, and IgAN and from healthy individuals. Sera and cell-culture supernatants were used for analysis of Gd-IgA1 and Gd-IgA1–specific IgG autoantibodies. Results: IgA1-producing cells from patients with IgAV-N, like cells from patients with IgAN, secreted more Gd-IgA1 than did cells from patients with IgAV-woN or healthy control subjects, in agreement with elevated serum Gd-IgA1 levels in patients with IgAV-N and IgAN. IgA1-producing cells from patients with IgAV-N had altered expression of genes involved in O-glycan biosynthesis: decreased for core 1 synthase (glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-β-galactosyltransferase 1; C1GALT1) and C1GALT1 Specific Chaperone 1 (C1GALTC1; COSMC) and elevated for N-acetylgalactosaminide α-2,6-sialyltransferase 2 (ST6GALNAC2). Levels of Gd-IgA1–specific IgG in sera and supernatants of IgG-producing cells were similar for patients with IgAV-N and IgAN and higher than those for IgAV-woN patients or healthy control subjects. Moreover, patients with IgAV-N who had active disease, manifested by hematuria and substantial proteinuria, had higher serum levels of Gd-IgA1–specific IgG autoantibodies than did patients with IgAV-N who had inactive disease. Conclusion: Serum levels and cellular production of Gd-IgA1 and Gd-IgA1–specific IgG autoantibodies were elevated in patients with IgAV-N, supporting the hypothesis that IgAV-N and IgAN share pathogenic features.