Coal ash, the byproduct of burning coal made up of small particles, including heavy metals and radioactive elements, is discarded in open-air landfills where it can be emitted into the air, contributing to air pollution in the surrounding community. Few regulations exist regarding the storage, disposal, and transport of coal ash. There is limited research on the health impacts of coal ash exposure on communities. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among adults exposed to coal ash and non-exposed adults. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted among two populations: one exposed to coal ash and one not exposed to coal ash. Perception of health (p-Value < 0.0001), cough (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 5.30, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) = 2.60-11), shortness of breath (AOR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.56-4.31), hoarseness (AOR = 4.02, 95% CI = 2.45-6.60), respiratory infections (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.14-2.89), and mean overall respiratory health score (p-Value < 0.0001) were all statistically significantly greater in exposed adults (N = 231) when compared to non-exposed adults (N = 170). Adults residing near the coal ash facility were more likely to report respiratory symptoms than the non-exposed population. More research on the health impact of coal ash and storage regulations needs to be conducted.