Purpose: There are a limited number of noninvasive methods available for the monitoring of neoplastic disease in the central nervous system. The goal of our study was to find reliable markers that could be used for disease monitoring as well as to identify new targets for the therapeutic intervention for malignant astrocytoma (WHO grades 3 and 4). Experimental Design: We employed proteomic techniques to identify secreted proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid that were specific to patients with malignant astrocytoma. Results: Among 60 cerebrospinal fluid samples of patients with various central nervous system diseases, attractin was consistently found to be elevated in the samples of patients with malignant astrocytoma. To independently validate these results, we examined attractin expression in a new set of 108 normal and tumoral brain tissue specimens and found elevated expression in 97% of malignant astrocytomas, with the highest levels in grade 4 tumors. Using immunohistochemistry, we further showed that attractin is produced and secreted by the tumor cells. Finally, we showed that cerebrospinal fluid from brain tumor patients induces glioma cell migration and that attractin is largely responsible for this promigratory activity. Conclusions: Our results find attractin to be a reliable secreted marker for high-grade gliomas. Additionally, our migration studies suggest that it may be an important mediator of tumor invasiveness, and thus, a potential target in future therapies. © 2006 American Association for Cancer Research.