RNAi is a powerful method for suppressing gene expression that has tremendous potential for therapeutic applications. However, because endogenous RNAi plays a role in normal cellular functions, delivery and expression of siRNAs must be balanced with safety. Here we report successful stable expression in primates of siRNAs directed to chemokine (c-c motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) introduced through CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell transplant. After hematopoietic reconstitution, to date 14 months after transplant, we observe stably marked lymphocytes expressing siRNAs and consistent down-regulation of chemokine (c-c motif) receptor 5 expression. The marked cells are less susceptible to simian immunodeficiency virus infection ex vivo. These studies provide a successful demonstration that siRNAs can be used together with hematopoietic stem cell transplant to stably modulate gene expression in primates and potentially treat blood diseases such as HIV-1. © 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.