© 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. Pelvic floor dysfunction is a relatively common but often complex condition, presenting with a variety of clinical symptoms, especially when it involves multiple compartments. Clinical exam alone is often inadequate and requires a complementary imaging study. Magnetic resonance defecography (MRD) is an excellent noninvasive diagnostic study with its multiplanar capability, lack of ionizing radiation and excellent soft tissue resolution. It can identify both anatomic and functional abnormalities in the pelvic floor and specifically excels in its ability to simultaneously detect multicompartmental pathology and help with vital pre-operative assessment. This manuscript reviews the relevant anatomical landmarks, describes the optimal technique, highlights an approach to the interpretation of MRD, and provides an overview of the various pelvic floor disorders in the different anatomical compartments.