Objective: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the association between cervical dentin hypersensitivity and the presence of abfractive lesions. Method and materials: Written records and study casts for 250 active-care patients, selected alphabetically, were analyzed for the clinical detection of abfractive lesions and cervical dentin hypersensitivity from 1979 until 1996. Clinical diagnosis of abfractive lesions was made according to existing literature descriptions of these hard tissue lesions. Cervical dentin hypersensitivity was diagnosed when a verified positive threshold patient response was found during tooth evaluation by the air indexing method. Patient groups I and II were formed solely on the basis of the presence or absence, respectively, of a verified positive threshold patient response of cervical dentin to air. Results: A significant association was found between air-indexed cervical hypersensitivity and the presence of abfractive lesions. The primary locations for both cervical hypersensitivity and abfractive lesions were the buccal surfaces of posterior teeth. Conclusion: This long-term retrospective study found a positive association between cervical dentin hypersensitivity and abfractive lesions. The correlative nature of this study suggests the need for further investigation.