Understanding whether metabolic factors are predictive of weight gain is important for developing strategies for prevention of weight gain. Recent research has shown that sleeping and resting energy expenditure are not predictive of weight gain. However, exercise endurance, muscular strength, 31P MRS muscle metabolic economy, and maximum oxygen uptake are independently related to weight gain. Activity-related energy expenditure and the time spent in physical activity are also related to weight gain, with low physical activity explaining approximately 77% of weight gain at 1 year. In addition, weight maintainers spend 80 minutes per day, whereas weight gainers spend less than 20 minutes per day in physical activity equivalent to an intensity of about 4 METS. It is proposed that strength, aerobic fitness, and physical activity are important factors for reducing the rate of weight gain. Although further research is required, these results are suggestive that weight maintenance programs will be more successful if some relatively high-intensity training is included to complement large amounts of low to moderate intense physical activity. © 2005 National Strength & Conditioning Association.