OBJECTIVE: To compare the immediate effect of xylitol chewing gum and xylitol mouth rinse on mutans streptococci (MS) levels in the saliva of adults with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Thirteen female adults with SSc were assigned randomly to either the xylitol chewing gum or xylitol mouth rinse groups. Participants in the chewing gum group were given 2 pellets (2.12g) of commercial xylitol chewing gum to chew for 10 min; whereas participants in the mouth rinse group were given 10 ml (10% [w/v]) of xylitol solution to rinse orally for 2 min. MS samples were collected using Dentocult®SM Strip mutans before and after xylitol exposure. RESULTS: No significant difference in the change scores of MS levels between the two groups was observed at post xylitol exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Mouth rinse may provide an alternative mode of xylitol delivery for this population.