Hardness and wear resistance of two resin composites cured with equivalent radiant exposure from a low irradiance LED and QTH light-curing units

Academic Article

Abstract

  • Purpose: To measure and compare three-body wear and Vickers hardness at depths of 0 mm and 2 mm in two composite resin materials cured with either a low irradiance light emitting diode (LED) or a quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light-curing unit (LCU) in which exposure duration with the LED was increased to deliver equivalent radiant exposure in the 450-490 nm wavelength range. Methods: The VIP QTH and Freelight LED LCU's were obtained and the emission spectrum of each was determined using a Spectra Pro 750 spectrograph. Irradiance in the 450-490 nm range for each LCU was determined by calculating the area under the spectral curve. Curing of two composite resins (Z100 and Esthet-X) with equivalent radiant exposure within this prescribed wavelength range was achieved by increasing the irradiation time of the LED 33% from 30-40 seconds to compensate for its lower irradiance (Table 1). The resulting radiant exposure of 8.40 J/cm2 was roughly equivalent to the radiant exposure produced in 30 seconds by the QTH LCU (8.67 J/cm2). The cured specimens were polished with progressively fine wet silicon carbide papers to 600 grit and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours prior to evaluating hardness and wear. Indentations for Vickers hardness testing were produced by applying a 0.5 kg load with a 15-second dwell time. Equivalent degree of cure was established indirectly through Vickers hardness numbers for the top and bottom surface of 2 mm thick disks of each material cured with each light (N = 3/group). Hardness ratios were computed by dividing mean bottom hardness by mean top hardness within each group. Three-body wear testing (N = 10/group) was performed on similarly fabricated specimens with a mechanical wear device using 44 μm unpolymerized PMMA beads as a simulated food bolus. The composite resin samples opposed spherical, stainless steel styli. A 75 N contact force was applied at 1.2 Hz for 100,000 cycles. Profilometry was used to quantify localized wear of the resin. Multivariate ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test (α = 0.05) were used to assess differences in hardness and wear of the materials. Results: With respect to hardness, no difference was noted between top and bottom specimen sides based on material or curing method. Specimens cured using the LED exhibited hardness ratios approaching unity. No significant difference in hardness was found for the main effect of light used, but the main effect of material was highly significant. This was primarily because Z100 cured with the LED demonstrated statistically higher hardness than the other three groups, which were statistically similar. No significant difference in wear was found based on the light used, with the lowest mean wear seen in Z100 cured with the LED. Overall, Z100 exhibited significantly greater surface hardness (P < 0.001) and significantly less wear (P < 0.01) compared to Esthet-X.
  • Published In

    Author List

  • Ramp LC; Broome JC; Ramp MH
  • Start Page

  • 31
  • End Page

  • 36
  • Volume

  • 19
  • Issue

  • 1