Objective: To compare the mineralisation density (MD), morphology and histology of alveolar bone and cementum amongst VDR +/+, VDR -/-, and VDR -/- groups supplemented with a diet TD 96348, containing 20% lactose, 2.0% calcium and 1.25% phosphorous. Methods: Four groups of mice (6 mice/group) were identified by genotyping: VDR +/+ mice (VDR wild type), VDR -/- mice (VDR deficient), VDR -/- offsprings derived from VDR -/- parents receiving a supplemental diet (early rescued), and VDR -/- mice fed with a supplemental diet beginning at age one month (late rescued). All mice were sacrificed at age 70.5 days. Micro-CT was used to compare MD and morphology of alveolar bone and cementum. H-E and Toluidine blue staining was used to examine the ultrastructure of the alveolar bone and cementum at matched locations. Results: In VDR -/- group, alveolar bone and cementum failed to mineralise normally. Early rescue increased MD of alveolar bone in VDR -/- mice with excessive alveolar bone formation, but which not observed in late rescue group. MD and morphology of cementum-dentine complex in both early and late rescue groups were comparable with VDR +/+ group when feeding with high-calcium rescue diet. Conclusions: VDR affects alveolar bone mineralisation and formation systemically and locally. However, cementum apposition and mineralisation is mainly regulated by calcium concentrations in serum. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.