Patients who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody positive are at increased risk of life threatening infection. Scintigraphic imaging with Ga-67 citrate has been used to identify the presence and site of focal infection. However, focal accumulation of Ga-67 is not specific for infection. A retrospective study was performed to compare the accuracy of Ga- 67 citrate and pooled human polyclonal immunoglobulin G (HIG) labeled with Tc-99m HIG and In-111 HIG in identifying infection in HIV antibody positive patients. Twenty-five studies were performed using Ga-67 and Tc-99m HIG were compared with a second group of 25 studies using In-111 HIG in HIV antibody positive patients presenting with fever, but without localizing symptoms or signs. In-111 HIG identified 20 of 22 sites of infection and also accumulated in 5 sites without infection (accuracy = 90%). This was significantly more accurate (X2, P < 0.05) than Ga-67 which identified 19 of 20 sites of infection, but accumulated in 18 sites without infection (accuracy = 74%) and Tc-99m HIG which identified infection in 11 of 20 sites, but accumulated in 8 sites without infection (accuracy = 77%). There was no significant difference between the accuracy of Ga-67 and Tc-99m HIG. From this preliminary study In- 111 HIG would seem to be the best agent for identifying infection in HIV antibody positive patients with fever.