Objective:To describe the spectrum of kidney disease in African patients with HIV and tuberculosis (TB).Methods:We used data from three cohorts: consecutive patients with HIV/TB in South London (UK, 2004-2016; n = 95), consecutive patients with HIV/TB who underwent kidney biopsy in Cape Town (South Africa, 2014-2017; n = 70), and consecutive patients found to have HIV/TB on autopsy in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire, 1991; n = 100). Acute kidney injury (AKI) was ascertained using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. In the Cape Town cohort, predictors of recovery of kidney function at 6 months were assessed using Cox regression.Results:In the London cohort, the incidence of moderate/severe AKI at 12 months was 15.1 (95% CI 8.6-26.5) per 100 person-years, and the prevalence of chronic and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) 13.7 and 5.7%, respectively. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) was diagnosed in 6% of patients in London, and in 6% of autopsy cases in Abidjan. Evidence of renal TB was present in 60% of autopsies in Abidjan and 61% of kidney biopsies in Cape Town. HIVAN and acute tubular necrosis (ATN) were also common biopsy findings in Cape Town. In Cape Town, 40 patients were dialyzed, of whom 28 (70%) were able to successfully discontinue renal replacement therapy. Antiretroviral therapy status, CD4+ cell count, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at biopsy and renal histology, other than ATN, were not predictive of eGFR recovery.Conclusion:Kidney disease was common in Africans with HIV/TB. Monitoring of kidney function, and provision of acute dialysis to those with severe kidney failure, is warranted.