© 2015 by JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved. Several neuroimaging approaches, specifically functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), have emerged over the past two decades as noninvasive methods by which we can reliably examine the function and structure of the developing human brain across the lifespan. The field of child psychiatry can now utilize a "molecules-to-mind" approach, studying key phenomena across multiple levels of analysis including genes, brain, behavior, and the broader environmental context. In this chapter, we provide an overview of modern techniques for studying the living, thinking, developing brain. We illustrate these neuroimaging methods with examples of how the techniques have been used to advance our understanding of childhood psychiatric disorders.