Specific material recommendations for the restoration of root surface caries are difficult because of a lack of data on the clinical performance of restorative materials in these situations. Although silver amalgam has been successfully used to restore carious roots, resin composite, glass ionomer, and resin-modified glass ionomers are also used to restore root surfaces since they are esthetic and bond to tooth structure. Fluoride releasing materials may inhibit recurrent caries in restored surfaces; however, clinical documentation of this phenomenon is sparse. This paper describes the efficacy of restorative materials used to restore root surfaces, the dynamic movement of fluoride into and out of restorative materials, and the role that fluoride releasing materials may play in the inhibition of recurrent caries in vitro and in vivo. In addition, classifications are given for low, medium, and high caries risk patients and material recommendations are made for each category of patient.