Objectives: The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence of oral functional limitation in adults and to identify clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with that limitation. Methods: The Florida Dental Care Study is a longitudinal study of risk factors for changes in oral health. Subjects (n=873) with at least one tooth who were 45 years old or older participated in a baseline in-person interview and dental examination. Subjects were queried about oral functional limitations. Results: Twenty-three percent of subjects reported difficulty chewing one or more foods using a five-item chewing index, and 10 percent reported difficulty speaking or pronouncing words because of problems with the mouth. The covariates in a multiple logistic regression identified as being significantly associated with chewing difficulty were fewer pairs of occluding anterior teeth, fewer pairs of occluding posterior teeth, more posterior teeth that are root tips, more anterior teeth that are mobile, reporting tooth pain, reporting bad breath, having but not wearing prosthetic appliances, reporting dry mouth, and being female. Having fewer anterior teeth, reporting a sore and/or broken denture, reporting unattractive teeth, and being black were significantly associated with speaking difficulty/difficulty pronouncing words because of problems with the teeth, mouth, or dentures. Conclusions: The findings in this study suggest a significant prevalence of oral functional limitation In dentate adults. Certain clinical and sociodemographic factors were strongly and independently associated with its presence.